Alternator / Generator failure
A failure of the electrical generator is not usually a serious emergency.
Most aircraft will fly perfectly well without electrical power. An exception
would be a helicopter being flown on instruments in IMC, but these aircraft
typically have redundant sources of electrical power.
Checking for overvoltage
Most aircraft have overvoltage protection, to protect the electrical system
from damage if the voltage regulator fails. Typically this is a relay which
trips if output voltage exceeds some threshold. These circuits are normally
reset by turning off the alternator/generator for a few seconds, and then
turning it back on. Failure to reset may mean the overvoltage situation is
still present, or that the problem is other than an overvoltage condition.
Shedding electrical load
If the power source can not be brought back on line, the next step is usually
to shed electrical load in order to preserve battery power. Some aircraft
have an essentials bus. Essential equipment is connected to this
bus, and the other electrical busses are turned off. With one switch, the
pilot can shed all non-essential equipment. If the aircraft does not have
an essentials bus, the pilot can turn off equipment by hand which he does
not feel is required for the safety of flight.
The aircraft I normally fly have about 10-15 minutes of reserve power with
a normal daylight load. The more equipment that gets turned off, the longer
the battery will last. At night, running the position lights is going to use
up electrical power much more rapidly. I would not normally extinguish my
position lights, but would plan on a landing almost immediately if the
failure occurs at night.
Equipment which I would immediately consider turning off would be
transponders and communications radios (after telling ATC that I am doing
so), landing lights, cabin fans, non-essential nav radios, interior lights,
During daylight, I can probably shed enough load to make it to an airport
for a landing. This has the advantage that there may be a mechanic there
who can fix my problem. At night, however, I want to be more conservative
and shed load, but also pick a spot to land almost right away. I want to
have plenty of power to run the landing light to help spot wires and poles
on my approach to land. I would be more concerned with getting the aircraft
on the ground, than with getting to an airport, and let the mechanic sort
it out in the morning.
paul at copters.com
(replace " at " with "@" to email me - this avoids SPAMMERS I hope)